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Glossary

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

A

ACI
American Concrete Institute
Acrylic
Type of adhesive made from methylmethacrylate resins.
Adhesive anchor
An anchor designed to bond directly to concrete within a predrilled hole using epoxy or other adhesive.
AISC
American Institute of Steel Construction
Allowable load
Maximum design load traveling through the load path to challange anchors.
Amine
Ingredient used in curing epoxy.
Anchor
A device for connecting equipment and attachments to the building structure.
ANSI
American National Standards Institute
ASTM
American Society of Testing and Material.
Attachments
Support systems used to connect equipment, pipe, conduit, or ductwork to the building.
Attachment type
Use of attachments to floors, walls, roofs, ceilings, and vibration isolators.

B

Bar joist
Ceiling joists supporting intermediate floors or roof made from steel angles and steel bars.
Base material
Anchors are installed into this substrate (concrete, CMU, etc.)
Base plate
A steel plate used for support and anchorage of an angle support or vibration isolator.
Bed joint
A horizontal seam in a brick or concrete block wall. Also see Head joint.
Bolt diameter
Thickness or width of the outside of the threaded portion of the bolt.
Bond strength
Chemical bonding capacity of an adhesive connecting an anchor insert with the base material.
Building structure
Steel, concrete, and wood members or surfaces that transfer the weight of the building and equipment to the ground.
Bumpers
Angles or other steel shapes rigidly mounted to the building structure in a pattern around the equipment base to limit horizontal movement.

C

Cable brace
A steel cable designed for use as a seismic sway brace for suspended equipment, piping, or ductwork. Also see Pre-stretched cable.
CAMA
Concrete Anchor Manufacturer's Association.
Cant strip
A material used to fill voids in roof flashing.
Cantilevered
A support member connected at one end and unsupported at the other end.
Cast-in-place
A steel shape embedded into concrete.
Cast-in-place anchor
A headed steel bolt or J-bolt set within a concrete form before concrete is poured. J-bolts are no longer recommended.
Concrete Masonary Unit
(CMU) See Masonry.
Cold joint
An edge between two concrete surfaces.
Concrete compressive strength
Specified compressive load capacity of concrete.
Counter flashing
A light gauge sheet metal folded over supports or equipment frames to shed water or snow onto the roof.
Cure time
Gain internal strength over time to withstand external forces.

D

Differential movement
The movement between two objects or surfaces.
Drop-in anchor
Post-installed anchor (also called shell anchor) where there is an internally threaded steel shell tapered at the end and an expanding plug that is driven into the tapered end at installation. This anchor is not recommended for seismic applications.
Dynamic load
A load with a varing magnitude over time. The load may be linear (sinusoidal shape) or non-linear.

E

Edge distance
The distance between a concrete anchor and the edge of a concrete surface or concrete cold joint.
Elastomeric
A material with flexibility in all directions that will return to its original shape if removed from its environment.
Embedded
Fixed firmly in the surrounding material.
Embedment
How far a post-installed anchor is inserted into a hole in concrete or wood after the anchor is set in place and torqued.
Embedment depth
See Embedment.
Epoxy
Thermosetting resin that hardens adhering to the insert and base material.
Expansion anchor
A post-installed anchor that uses some form of wedge or shell held against the edge of a drilled hole with friction.

F

Ferrule
A small metal tube that can be crimped around steel cables.
Flexible connector
A connector designed to allow slight movement between a piece of equipment, component, or system and another system in the amount of relative movement caused by an earthquake.
Flexible mounted equipment
A piece of equipment supported on or from a vibration isolator.

G

Gel time
A specified amount of time for an adhesive to form a jelly-like substance with strength to hold its own weight or the weight of a light steel anchor.
Grommet
A rubber or elastomeric bushing-shaped ring that may be used in restrained springs, snubbers, or with bolts to provide a cushioned or flexible connection.
Groove joint
A mechanical connection between two pipe sections using a tongue-and-groove configuration and elastomeric gasket.

H

Hand tight
The force applied by hand to bring two or more materials together without a space and without the use of tools.
Head joint
A vertical joint between two concrete blocks in a block wall or two bricks in a brick wall. Also see Bed joint.
Headed stud
A large bolt with a threaded shaft and a hexagonal shaped bolt head typically used for embedment into concrete surfaces or in-filled concrete walls.
Height-saving bracket
A bracket used to accommodate the height of spring isolators without raising the equipment base more than a few inches.
Housed spring
A spring isolator with steel guides usually separated by an elastomeric sheet located on two opposite sides of the spring.
Housekeeping pad
A concrete pad located under equipment that raises the equipment off a structure or structural slab. Housekeeping pads are also called plinths.

I

Inertia base
A heavily weighted base, usually made of concrete, that weighs more than the equipment it supports.
In-filled block
A concrete block wall whose cells are reinforced with rebar and filled with a sand-grout mixture.
Isolation curb
See Manufactured isolation curb.
Isolators
See Vibration isolators.

J

J-bolt
Type of embedded anchor in the shape of an L usually wired to rebar in the concrete which has a tendency to slip under load and therefore is no longer recommended.

L

Leveling stanchions
See Stanchions.
Load path
Seismic support of equipment and internal components that can be traced though connections and support steel to the building structure.
Load transfer angles
Angles bolted to equipment and to the building structure, transferring the weight and earthquake load through the angles to the building structure.
Longitudinal brace
A brace that restrains pipes or duct parallel to the longitudinal direction of the pipe or duct run.

M

Masonry
Brick or concrete block (CMU - concrete masonry unit) connected together with mortar.
Manufactured isolation curb
A factory-built curb designed to attach equipment to a roof and containing vibration isolators, which allow for slight movement of the equipment.

N

Nominal diameter
The diameter across the outer-most edges of a bolt or threaded rod.

P

Point load
Weight and seismic forces that are focused to a single point connection to the building structure.
Post and beam
An elevated structure usually made from beams resting on posts or stanchions connected to the building structure.
Post-installed anchor
Anchors that are installed after the building structure is completed.
Post-tension building
A concrete building structure surface with internal steel cables that are stretched and restrained to permanently compress the concrete surface.
Pre-manufactured curb
A sheet metal curb manufactured at a factory and sent to the job site.
Pre-stretched cable
Cable that is stretched after it is manufactured.

R

Raceway
A channel (conduit or open raceway) designed to hold wires and cables or busbars.
Rated spring deflection
The dimension a spring will compress when the weight of equipment is applied.
Rebar
Reinforcing steel used to strengthen concrete slabs, CMU and other surfaces.
Restrained spring
A vibration isolator containing a spring enclosed in a welded or bolted steel housing that limits the movement of the spring equipment attachment.
Rigid mounted equipment
Equipment solidly braced or bolted directly to the building structure without vibration isolation.

S

Seismic cable
A steel or stainless steel braided rope.
Seismic restraint device
An attachment device designed to help equipment withstand an earthquake.
Shallow concrete anchor
Any anchor with an embedment depth measuring less than 1/8 of its diameter.
Shear load
Load applied perpendicular to the axis of an anchor.
Shim
A thin wedge or material used to fill a space.
Sleeve anchor
Post-installed anchor that consists of a bolt covered by a thin-walled split tube. As the bolt is tightened, the tube expands.
Snubber
A seismic restraint device used on isolated systems with an air gap and elastomeric bushing or oil-filled hydraulic cylinder (shock absorber) restricting rapid motion of a pipe.
Snug tight
The force applied by hand to bring two or more materials together without a space and without the use of tools.
Spring isolated
See Vibration isolated.
Stanchions
Columns or short structural steel shapes placed vertically that connect to equipment bases or horizontal structural steel frames to provide equipment support.
Static
Load A load that does not change over time.
Structural shapes
See Structural steel shapes.
Structural steel shapes
A manufactured steel component in a variety of shapes.
Strut
A manufactured steel shape in various U-shaped patterns and sizes.
Sway brace
Solid braces or cable braces that provide seismic restraint.

T

Tendons
Steel cables used in post-tension buildings. Also see Post-tension buildings.
Thimble
A metal spacer used on a cable to protect it from being bent and damaged.
Transverse brace
A brace that restrains pipes, conduits or ducts perpendicular to the longitudinal direction.
Torque
A turning force around a bolt applied by twisting a bolt head or nut so the components will not separate.

U

Undercut anchor
A post-installed anchor that contains parts that expand into voids within the concrete.

V

Vibration isolated
Allows flexible motion between equipment, piping, or ductwork and the building structure.
Vibration isolators
Components containing springs used to separate equipment from the building structure.

W

Wedge anchor
Post-installed anchor is a threaded rod with a small clip on the end around a wedge that expands when tightened.